Mahamana Madan Mohan Malaviya was a great leader of Indian history, freedom fighter, president of Hindu Mahasabha, great reformer of Hindu society. He is immortal in Indian history for his contribution in the field of education. He played an important role in the promotion of Sanatan Dharma and culture. He had also been the President of the Indian National Congress, and his important work was to establish the Banaras Hindu University. He started Scouting in India.
Malaviya was born on 25 December 1861 in Prayag, British India. Their ancestors came from Malwa in central India and settled here, hence they were called Malviyas. His father’s name was Brajnath, who was a great scholar of Sanskrit of his time and used to earn his livelihood by telling more stories. His mother’s name was Moondevi. He was the fifth of the seven children of his parents.
He started his education in Sanskrit at the age of five, went to Pandit Hardev’s Dharma Gyanopadesh Pathshala to complete his primary education, then joined a school run by the Vidhan Vardhini Sabha. After this he joined Allahabad Zilla School which was an English medium school where he started writing poems, these poems were later published in many magazines. He wrote poems with a surname ‘Makrand’, which were later published in ‘Harishchandra Chandrika’ magazine during 1883-84. Apart from this, his articles on his contemporary and religious subjects were published in ‘Hindi Pradeepa’. His father was a scholar and story teller in Sanskrit, he used to read the stories of ‘Srimad Bhagwat’, this was the reason why Madanmohan also wanted to become a storyteller like him.
In the year 1879, he passed his matriculate exam from Allahabad University (Muir Central College) and then graduated from Calcutta University in 1884 with a bachelor’s degree (B.O.). His family was not financially prosperous, seeing that the principal of Harrison College helped him with a monthly scholarship. After completing his graduation, he started working as a teacher. He wanted to do post-graduation after graduation, but the financial condition of his house was not good, so he could not do so. After completing his law studies, he started practicing first in the District Court and later in the High Court.
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During the freedom struggle, he acted as a bridge between the liberals and the nationalists. He is still famous for his speech for four and a half hours in opposition to the Rowlatt Bill and for five consecutive hours on the Bill of Abolition. Malviya ji, who was active in the Congress for 50 years, had also edited Raja Rampal Singh’s Hindi English newspaper Hindustan from 1887 AD. After this, he also collaborated in the editing of Indian Opinion. In 1909 AD, the daily paper Leader was brought out equivalent to the pro-government newspaper Pioneer. Came to Delhi in 1924 and organized Hindustan Times. He was also elected the President of Congress four times. He was arrested in the Civil Disobedience Movement of 1930. Participated in the Second Round Table Conference of 1931.
His biggest contribution to the country is known as Banaras Hindu University (BHU). In 1937, he retired from politics and completely focused on social issues. Malviya, the great son of India, who had great reverence in Sanatan Dharma, strongly opposed the prohibition of entry of Dalits in the temple and launched a movement against this evil across the country. He opposed women’s education prohibition, supported widow remarriage and social evils like child marriage and untouchability. He died at the age of 85 on 12 November 1946, a year before the country’s independence.
Life introduction :
|Date of Birth / Death :||25 December 1861 / 12 November 1946
|Nickname :||great man|
|Full Name / Real Name :||Madan Mohan Malviya|
|Place of Birth :||Prayag|
|Citizenship / Nationality:||Indian|
|Home Town :||Prayag, Uttar Pradesh, India|
|Religion / Caste :||Hindu / Brahmin (Chaturvedi)|
|Education / Educational Qualification :||Bachelor’s (B.O.), Advocacy|
|School / School :||Pandit Hardev Dharma Gyanopadesh Pathshala / Mayor Central College (Modern Allahabad University)|
|College / University :||Calcutta University|
|Profession / Occupation :||Teacher, Lawyer, Journalist, Freedom Fighter|
|Marital Status :||married|
|Wife :||Kundan Devi (1878)|
|Children :||Son – Ramakanta, Mukunda, Radhakanta, Govind
Daughter- Rama, Malti
|Parents :||Father – Brajnath, Mother – Moondevi|
Some interesting facts related to the life of Mahamana Pandit Madan Mohan Malviya:
- Madan Mohan Malviya was strongly opposed to the casteist ideology, due to which he was also expelled from the Brahmin caste.
- He started the Ganga Aarti at Har ki Pauri in Haridwar.
- Not only did he oppose social discrimination in temples, but Hindu Dalits entered the Kalaram temple on the day of the Rath Yatra, and performed a holy bath in Godavari with chanting of mantras.
- He was honored with the title of Mahamana by Mahatma Gandhi, he used to respect Panditji like his elder brother.
- Gandhiji also called them “Makers of India”.
- The second President of India, Dr. Radhakrishnan also gave the title of Karam Yogi for his selfless work.
- Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru said that he is a great soul, who has laid the foundation of the nationalism of New India.
- He also persuaded the British government to use the Devanagari script in the court, which is considered one of his great achievements.
- Malaviya ji was a staunch Hindu, and was opposed to cow slaughter.
- For the establishment of Banaras Hindu University, Malaviyaji also went to the Nizam’s court to arrange funds, where the Nizam insulted him and threw his shoe at him, Malaviyaji remained calm and he took that shoe out and put it in the auction.
- In 1918, the Akhil Bhartiya Seva Samiti established its centers at several places for the Kumbh Mela, floods, earthquakes, and other natural calamities.
- In the same year its sub-unit model as Boy Scout was introduced, its important feature being that Vande Mataram was sung in place of the British national anthem.
- Malviyaji had told Gandhiji not to accept the partition of the country, but he did not listen to Malaviyaji.
- In 1918, when he was the President of the Indian National Congress, he gave the slogan Satyamev Jayate.
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Honors and Awards:
On 24 December 2014, a day before his birthday, he was posthumously awarded the Bharat Ratna, the country’s highest civilian honor.
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